The WHY and HOW of Universal Design for Learning : Part 3 of 3

UDL Tools

When introducing and encouraging the use of UDL concepts in the classroom; specifically methodology and tools to embed into curriculum and lessons, I think, just as we do with students, we need to begin with tools that will likely entice and excite teachers and achieve positive results.  By respecting the amount of time that teachers spend in and outside of the classroom to help educate our students, we are more likely to engage the teacher and create a motivation for using UDL tools.

But first, we must determine the individual teacher’s goals and identify their perceived challenges.  Questions like; Do you feel overwhelmed with the amount of one on one assistance you spend with individual students? Do you find that students lack motivation? Are students performing well on tests? What are the current methods used for assessment? Etc. These questions can be asked to help assess where the teacher is coming from, what supports they are willing to accept help with, and what tools may best serve the needs of the students and the teacher.

One method that may prove beneficial when introducing UDL to teachers and attempting to get their “buy in” is to have them visit the CAST website and the Curriculum Barriers Tutorial. I believe that often times, teachers don’t see the barriers that students may face, or they only see that barriers that students identified as having disabilities may face and don’t realize that these barriers may exist for all learners in one way or the other.  CAST Curriculum Barriers Tutorial is available at the above link as well as directly at: http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/tools/curriculumbarrierstutorial.cfm

One challenge that I see all teachers face with students as they begin their (usually) senior year at our school, is that they are not accustomed to learning.  What I mean by this, is they have often learned to regurgitate information for a test or a culminating project. (i.e. memorizing dates, names, places for a test, spewing it out for the test, erasing it from memory, and moving on to the next chapter). I’ve talked about this in past blogs.  For the first time, many students need to really engage in their learning and to learn for lasting memory.  (No longer short term, rote memorization, but learning to apply, to use, to retrieve down the road). When teachers consider how to shift the students way of learning, they will see that UDL tools can assist them in reaching this goal. Remember, long term learning occurs in the Pre-Frontal Cortex where the executive functioning occurs (Willis, 2012). And, the pathways to reach long term memory are strengthened by the release of dopamine and reinforced by active, repetitive use (Willis, 2012).

Below are a list of tools and strategies that I would like to introduce to the teachers and staff at the school where I teach, addressing the most basic concerns that teachers have expressed.  This is a list of beginning tools; those that may produce the most immediate results, take the least amount of time on the teacher’s part, and reduce the greatest barriers to learning, to better serve all students in the classroom.

Addressing problems of boredom, lack of student motivation, students not engaged in learning or class participation

  • Begin lessons with humor (verbal, visual, video, song)
  • Add technology to the delivery of the lesson (video clips, powerpoint, itunes, photos, youtube, etc.)
  • use quick response systems (anonymous methods of assessing students and engaging students) – ipods, texting, web-based.
  • Add personal stories to lectures.
  • Provide copies of powerpoints/notes so students can follow along, fill in, add to, pay attention to auditory format, etc.
  • Use interactive whiteboards
  • Encourage the use of livescribe pens for students who will benefit from listening to lecture at a later date.
  • Use QR Codes (scan codes) for students to access notes, powerpoints, videos, lecture, etc. at a later time (www.QRstuff.com , www.tagmydoc.com )
  • Supplement lecture/theory with examples and stories.
  • Allow student/s to “teach” or “introduce” a lesson.
  • Use whiteboard paddles or dry erase board to respond to questions (others cant see but students respond and teacher can quickly assess and involved students):  http://www.orientaltrading.com
  • Create emails to encourage students to correspond with you when they have questions.
  • Use collaborative seating arrangements (U-shape, Grouped, etc.)
  • Provide opportunities for choice in project/assignments examples: wordles, i-movies, etc.
  • Provide examples of previously completed projects for reference.
  • Provide easy to understand rubrics in advance of assignments (www.rubristar.com)
  • Allow for peer and small group work.
  • Provide visual references for multi-step tasks.
  • Allow use of highlighters and colored folders or paper.
  • USE DVD/CD/Text website provided with most texts to supplement learning,
  • Provide technology to create final projects, encouraging creativity and choice.

Addressing Problems with organization and daily planning and assignment completion (time management) issues.

  • Breakdown assignments into smaller “check in’ chunks (providing opportunities to check in and experience success and receive feedback along the way).
  • Use technology to build in alarm clocks, buzzers, reminders, etc.
  • Have students document and graph their time on tasks.
  • Use color to code types of materials, assignments, due dates, etc.
  • Use ipods and outlook for calendar management.
  • Allow students to identify technology that may help them with organization and time management.
  • Use internet/web/email to send out reminders regarding due dates or homework assignments.
  • Consider having digital format of text or material available on the web for students to access if they forget their textbooks.

References

Willis M.D., J (2012). Neuroscience & the classroom: Strategies for maximizing students’ engagement, memory and potentials. Integrated Learning Conference. November 7, 2012.

The HOW and WHY of UDL Implementation in the Classroom and School-Wide: Part 2 of 3

HOW

As I’ve mentioned in previous blogs, I began this blog as part of a requirement for a UDL course at George Washington University. As such, this week’s assignment is to discuss how to approach UDL systemic change. One of the questions posed is “What UDL tools might be used to evaluate barriers and opportunities in my particular setting?”  Since I am a learning support teacher and support students in a variety of different ways (within their career & technical education programs, with transition related activities, in math or English, etc.), I am approaching this question in a very broad way.

I would like to see UDL implemented across the school setting.  However, I know that systemic change (school-wide change) cannot occur overnight. It must be carefully planned out to create “buy-in” across the board. Additionally, it must have the infrastructure of technology and staff support.  I will talk more about that in a bit.

Because many people do not like change, and many teachers feel possessive of their classes or program, introducing change too quickly can be problematic. And, yet, we know that administrators are aware that educational systems need change to keep pace with our global society (Anderson, 1993). I believe, for this reason, that change must come from a variety of directions; administratively it must be supported, teachers need to see the value of this new approach, students need to understand how they learn and why they will benefit, and in my case, the sending districts must support the change, as they can provide further resources and direction.

Administrative support and direction is paramount.  The previously mentioned brain research can help support and defend this systemic change. Obtaining buy-in from teachers is the biggest challenge that administration may face. Teachers would benefit from hearing from other CTE instructors across the state who have implemented UDL systems. They must hear about the challenges as well as the benefits.  Providing instructional coaches is one method that has worked at other CTCs.  An Instruction Coach is usually a learning support teacher who supports teachers in developing lessons that embed UDL principles and methods into their lesson.  The Instructional coach then supports the teacher and co-teaches for a few lessons until the teacher is comfortable with the UDL tool used.  I think it is crucial that positive support is provided when we ask teachers to “change” what they are doing.

I believe that we already know what barriers students with learning disabilities face in different classrooms. For instance, in the Health Professions Program reading is a huge barrier for students who may struggle with decoding, comprehension, or fluency.  However, I would assert that reading is also a barrier for several students who have not been identified to receive special ed. services. So why not encourage the teacher to embed UDL techniques in the curriculum?  (Examples like this can be found in all 20 programs that we have at our school).

One method to create “buy in” from the teachers, a method that worked in the Concord New Hampshire school system, begun in 1994 (Rose & Meyer, 2002), is to allow the teachers and the students to generate the momentum for the use of UDL.  This is accomplished by approaching teachers in small gropus and sharing excitement for the concept and then showing them the benefits. Instead of a drastic restructuring of the school, I would encourage our administration as well as myself to approach those teachers who are most likely to be open and accepting of UDL strategies and help support them in their use of these tools. I would then encourage them to share with their colleagues the benefits of using these tools. I believe that when teachers talk to other teachers and share ideas, they will listen far more openly than when they are directed to do something by the administration.

Finally, time must be allotted for the implementation; the exploration of ideas, the development of materials, collaboration, and reflection.  This is probably the biggest hurdle in our school. Our teachers don’t even have a planning period. The administration may have to look at grants to be able to offset the costs of hiring substitute teachers to come in and allow teachers planning time.

For additional material; a template for creating systematic change to apply the Concord Model; http://www.cast.org/Teachingeverystudent/model

Concord Administration describes UDL’s Systemic Implementation:  http://www.cast.org/Teachingeverystudent/UDLImplementation

References

Anderson, B.L. (1993). The stages of systemic change. Educational Leadership, 51, 14-17.

Rose, D.H. & Meyer, A. (2002).Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal design for learning. Alexandria, VA: ASDC.

“Teaching style does matter; you get what you give out.” (Click for an example of how NOT to teach)

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